IBIIS-AIMI Seminar: Negar Golestani, PhD & Jean-Benoit Delbrouck, PhD
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Title: AI in Radiology-Pathology Fusion Towards Precise Breast Cancer Detection
Abstract: Breast cancer is a global public health concern with various treatment options based on tumor characteristics. Pathological examination of excised tissue after surgery provides important information for treatment decisions. This pathology processing involving the manual selection of representative sections for histological examination is time-consuming and subjective, which can lead to potential sampling errors. Accurately identifying residual tumors is a challenging task, which highlights the need for systematic or assisted methods. Radiology-pathology registration is essential for developing deep-learning algorithms to automate cancer detection on radiology images. However, aligning faxitron and histopathology images is difficult due to content and resolution differences, tissue deformation, artifacts, and imprecise correspondence. We propose a novel deep learning-based pipeline for affine registration of faxitron images (x-ray representations of macrosections of ex-vivo breast tissue) with their corresponding histopathology images. Our model combines convolutional neural networks (CNN) and vision transformers (ViT), capturing local and global information from the entire tissue macrosection and its segments. This integrated approach enables simultaneous registration and stitching of image segments, facilitating segment-to-macrosection registration through a puzzling-based mechanism. To overcome the limitations of multi-modal ground truth data, we train the model using synthetic mono-modal data in a weakly supervised manner. The trained model successfully performs multi-modal registration, outperforms existing baselines, including deep learning-based and iterative models, and is approximately 200 times faster than the iterative approach. The application of proposed registration method allows for the precise mapping of pathology labels onto radiology images, thereby establishing ground truth labels for training classification and detection models on radiological data. This work bridges the gap in current research and clinical workflow, offering potential improvements in efficiency and accuracy for breast cancer evaluation and streamlining pathology workflow.
Title: Generating Accurate and Factually Correct Medical Text
Abstract: Generating factually correct medical text is of utmost importance due to several reasons. Firstly, patient safety is heavily dependent on accurate information as medical decisions are often made based on the information provided. Secondly, trust in AI as a reliable tool in the medical field is essential, and this trust can only be established by generating accurate and reliable medical text. Lastly, medical research also relies heavily on accurate information for meaningful results. Recent studies have explored new approaches for generating medical text from images or findings, ranging from pretraining to Reinforcement Learning, and leveraging expert annotations. However, a potential game changer in the field is the integration of GPT models in pipelines for generating factually correct medical text for research or production purposes.